The Cancer Within Modern Medicine
There is a cancer within the world of modern medicine, eating away at the very heart of its original design. Rather than healing the world, this cancer seeks to destroy us from within. As we continue to dissect the cancer within, in this segment of the report, we will focus on the area of eugenics and the eugenicists who have shaped the world of modern medicine since the turn of the 20th century.
The Origins of Eugenics and “The Descent of Man”
The concept of eugenics is rooted in the work of Charles Darwin. In his book, the “Descent of Man,” written in 1871, Darwin applied his theory of natural selection to the human species, and concluded, “With savages, the weak in body or mind are soon eliminated; and those that survive commonly exhibit a vigorous state of health. We civilized men, on the other hand, do our utmost to check the process of elimination; we build asylums for the imbecile, the maimed, and the sick; we institute poor-laws; and our medical men exert their utmost skill to save the life of every one to the last moment…Thus the weak members of civilized societies propagate their kind. No one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this must be highly injurious to the race of man.” Inspired by the theory of natural selection in mankind, Darwin’s half-cousin, Sir Francis Galton, endorsed the concept of “selective human breeding” by coining the term “eugenics.” His book entitled “Heredity Genius” postulated that greatness was inherited, and Galton subscribed to the pursuit of perfecting mankind by eliminating its “undesirables” while reproducing the “desirables.”
The Carnegie Institution and Rockefeller Foundation had deep connections with scientists and academics in Ivy League schools including: Harvard, Yale, Princeton and Stanford. Their influence on science and medicine within academia led to “faked and twisted data to serve eugenics’ racist aims.” The President of Stanford, David Starr Jordan, formed the theory that human qualities and conditions like talent or poverty, were passed on through blood in his 1902 writing, “Blood of a Nation.”
By 1904, the Carnegie Institution opened a Eugenics Records Office in Cold Spring Harbor, New York, with the purpose of collecting data on American citizens, including: race, bloodline, genealogy, personality traits, characteristics, as well as physical and mental health. With full backing from the Carnegie Institution, the Eugenics Records Office was under the direction of H. H. Laughlin, who was a spokesperson for the eugenics movement and lobbied for the restriction of immigration and sterilization of those deemed as “defectives.” The Eugenics Records Office at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory was the hub of the American eugenics movement, and their research was invaluable in passing several eugenic sterilization laws, including the research of H.H. Laughlin entitled “Eugenical Sterilization in the United States,” which lead to the passage of the Virginia Sterilization Act of 1924. An outspoken eugenicist and managing director of the organization that eventually became the American Cancer Society, C.C. Little, had worked for the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory for three years after World War I. While serving as President of the University of Michigan, as well as President of The American Eugenics Society, Little published a pamphlet in 1927 revealing their agenda. It states, “One of our friends said recently, ‘You will never be able to make eugenics popular until you can make the man in the street feel the pinch of the defective classes on his pocketbook; now and again some person calls eugenics an impractical ideal and eugenicists, dreamers; and not infrequently do we find those who take no interest in the subject because it is ‘new.’ The facts about eugenics should be known and understood, by all, for as they are, it will appear that eugenics is as old as the race, intensely practical and money saving.” In 1921, C.C. Little also became a founding board member of the American Birth Control League, which eventually became known as Planned Parenthood. The Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory will forever be remembered for their research in the field of eugenics and genetics, such as the Nobel Prize winning discovery of the DNA double helix, made by James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953. James Watson served as president of the lab from 1994 to 2003, but the lab severed ties with the Nobel Laureate over his public statement in 2007 referring to the conditions in Africa as “gloomy,” and adding, “all our social policies are based on the fact that their intelligence is the same as ours – whereas all the testing says not really.”
With the implementation of mandatory sterilization of those deemed as socially inadequate by the superintendent of the Eugenics Records Office, Harry Laughlin, the Model Eugenic Sterilization Law was enforced in 30 states as well as Puerto Rico. A 1924 Supreme Court case, Buck vs. Bell, upheld a Virginia law which allowed the state of Virginia to sterilize “mentally defective” individuals. Such was the case for Carrie Buck and her sister – who didn’t realize until her late 60’s that her operation was for tubal ligation rather than appendicitis. In an opinion to uphold the law, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, “We have seen more than once that the public welfare may call upon the best citizens for their lives. It would be strange if it could not call upon those who already sap the strength of the State for these lesser sacrifices, often not felt to be such by those concerned, in order to prevent our being swamped with incompetence. It is better for all the world if, instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind. . . . Three generations of imbeciles are enough.” Eugenics sterilization laws were passed in 24 states in America between the 1920’s and 1930’s, as well as in Canada and Sweden. Between the 1930’s and the 1970’s, Sweden sterilized nearly 60,000 people, mostly female. By 1933, California had performed more sterilization procedures, of institutionalized people, than any of the other states combined.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington and the Rockefeller Foundation, along with the Harriman railroad fortune, were the driving forces behind the eugenics movement in the U.S. and around the world. In fact, the Rockefeller Foundation helped found the Nazi German eugenics program. Nazi Germany heavily promoted the concept of eugenics with the sterilization of hundreds of thousands of people, as well as the genocide of millions. Hitler praised the work of American eugenicists as a model for eugenics in Germany and professed that he followed American eugenics legislation very closely, stating, “Now that we know the laws of heredity, it is possible to a large extent to prevent unhealthy and severely handicapped beings from coming into the world. I have studied with interest the laws of several American states concerning prevention of reproduction by people whose progeny would, in all probability, be of no value or be injurious to the racial stock.” Hitler even admired American eugenicist, Madison Grant, in a letter regarding Grant’s book, “The Passing of the Great Race,” by confessing that it was his “bible.” The Rockefeller Foundation fueled the rise of the Nazi eugenics movement through grants donated to German researchers in the amount of $410,000 – a sum that would equate to $4 million dollars by our standards. One donation, in particular, went to research at the The German Psychiatric Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, under director Ernst Rudin. In 1932, Rudin was awarded the position of President of the International Federation of Eugenics Organizations and later became the architect of Hitler’s eugenics program. Horrific experiments were conducted at Kaiser Wilhelm during the war, including the examination of brains from hundreds of thousands of disabled victims of the Nazi euthanasia program, as well as research on twins and effects on “later generations of substances toxic for germ plasma.” Josef Mengele was an assistant under Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, the head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics, who performed atrocious experiments on twins while at Auschwitz, all in pursuit of eugenics and “racial hygiene.” At the end of the war, Verschuer escaped prosecution and by 1949 became a corresponding member of the American Society of Human Genetics. An American geneticist by the name of Hermann Muller, who also conducted research at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, became the first president for the American Society of Human Genetics in 1949.
It is important to understand the history of eugenics and the role that it has played in shaping science and medicine since the turn of the 20th century, as many of the ideologies and agendas of the members of the early eugenics movement continue to effect modern medicine to this day.
Birth Control and the “Elimination of the Unfit”
With the rise of the eugenics movement in the U.S., Margaret Sanger wrote an article in the Birth Control Review, which she founded in 1917, entitled, “Birth Control and Racial Betterment,” in which she stated, “Before eugenicists and others who are laboring for racial betterment can succeed, they must first clear the way for birth control. Like the advocates for birth control, the eugenicists, for instance, are seeking to assist the race toward the elimination of the unfit. Both are seeking a single end but they lay emphasis on different methods.” The American Birth Control League was founded on November 10, 1921, during the First American Birth Control Conference held in New York. Board of Directors members included: C.C. Little, who became president of the American Eugenics Society in 1929, and Eleanor Roosevelt. In 1924, Raymond B. Fosdick, who was a board member of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, became president of the Rockefeller Foundation and General Education Board in 1936, and a leading figure in the American Eugenics Society, wrote a letter to John D. Rockefeller III requesting financial support for Sanger’s Birth Control League. Days later J.D. Rockefeller III replied with authorization to pledge funds. Fosdick also served on the general counsel of the American Birth Control League. In 1926, Sanger attended a Klu Klux Klan rally in Silver Lake, New Jersey, and recounted the event in her autobiography stating, “I accepted an invitation to talk to the women’s branch of the Klu Klux Klan … I saw through the door dim figures parading with banners and illuminated crosses … I was escorted to the platform, was introduced, and began to speak … In the end, through simple illustrations I believed I had accomplished my purpose. A dozen invitations to speak to similar groups were proffered.”
In February of 1935, Sanger’s Birth Control Review announced a resolution by the American Birth Control League to unite with the American Eugenics Society in formulating plans to inform families of “where they may best obtain medical advice in a strictly legal fashion as to the limitations of families by methods in accordance with their religious convictions.” The Lasker Foundation reported that Mary Lasker was apparently so impressed by Sanger’s “bravery and drawn by the idea that people should determine the size of their own families, [that] Lasker made a donation to the American Birth Control League and subsequently joined its board.” Soon after, in 1939, the American Birth Control League merged with the Birth Control Federation of America, from which Mary Lasker served as secretary on the Executive Committee. Some notable individuals on the board included: president of the American Eugenics Society – C.C. Little, president of the Pathfinder Fund and heir to the Proctor & Gamble fortune – Clarence Gamble, Carola Warburg Rothschild and Ann Vanderbilt. Mary Lasker’s husband, Albert, donated $20,000 to one of the first undertakings of the Birth Control Federation of America, known as the “Negro Project,” which sought to reduce the birth rate of the black population nation-wide, particularly in the south. They planned to hire 3 or 4 black ministers to travel throughout the south spreading birth control propaganda, as they believed “the most successful educational approach to the Negro is through a religious appeal.” In a letter written to Clarence Gamble, Sanger stated, “The ministers work is also important and also he should be trained, perhaps by the Federation as to the ideals and the goal that we hope to reach. We do not want the word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population and the minister is the man who can straighten out that idea if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members.”
Albert Lasker, who was known as the “father of modern advertising,” was quite keen about the psychology of consumers and proposed a new name for the organization – “one that better reflected its positive mission and that might ease its public acceptance. In 1942, his suggestion was accepted, and the organization became the Planned Parenthood Federation of America.” The eugenics movement realized “the time was not right for aggressive eugenic propaganda” and shifted their language to more positive public messages such as, “freedom of choice,” “family planning,” and “population control.”
In 1952, Margaret Sanger expanded the Planned Parenthood agenda by founding the International Planned Parenthood Federation, a global NGO which sought to primarily target racially diverse areas of poverty around the world. The expansion was of course made possible by donations from the Rockefeller Foundation and others. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, one of the largest foundations in the world to provide healthcare funding, is a long-time financial supporter and advocate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. When asked in a 2003 interview with Bill Moyers, Bill Gates shared his inspiration for support of population control measures like abortion by confessing that his father was at one point the head of Planned Parenthood. Gates recalled, “When I was growing up, my parents were always involved in various volunteer things. My dad was head of Planned Parenthood. And it was very controversial to be involved with that. And so it’s fascinating. At the dinner table my parents are very good at sharing the things that they were doing.”
By the time the U. S. Supreme Court decision of Roe v. Wade was handed down in 1973, the abortion rights movement was intertwined with the population control coalition, which heavily lobbied of governmental reform and funding in order to address their perceived growing threat of population control in America and worldwide. In the decades to follow, Planned Parenthood has become a leading abortion provider in America, catering their services to people of color in low-income “rural or medically underserved” areas. The organization has continually advocated for more extreme forms of birth control, with the most recent being their support for late-term abortion laws such as the Reproductive Health Act in New York.
In a 2014 undercover video, the Senior Director of Medical Services for Planned Parenthood described in gruesome detail the harvesting of baby body parts for the sale to potential clients. The undercover tapes have been the basis of 15 felony count charges against the citizen journalists who made the recordings, without the parties’ knowledge. Revelations of Planned Parenthood’s practices were discovered to be even more barbaric than previously known when the CEO of StemExpress admitted in court that the biomedical company that procured baby body parts from Planned Parenthood for the sale to laboratories, supplied beating fetal hearts and intact heads for medical research. The gruesome details of this confession allude to unethical practices by Planned Parenthood. The court hearing also shed light on the immoral business practices of body part sales, which implies an incentive, outside of the care for each individual patient, to perform more abortions.
In pursuit of “racial betterment” and “elimination of the unfit,” eugenicist and founder of Planned Parenthood, Margaret Sanger, has left a legacy of death in her wake, with an estimated 250 million abortions performed in the United States since Roe v. Wade, more than 18 million of which are from the black population.
Solving “The Population Problem”
In 1952, JD Rockefeller III gathered a small group of eugenicists, scientists, and birth control activists, including Hermann Muller and Frederick Osborn, to found the Population Council. The group united under the cause of solving the “population problem,” stating it would conduct “research in both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of population in the United States in relation to potential material and cultural resources.”
John Foster Dulles, chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation, Secretary of State to Eisenhower, and brother to Allen Dulles, was also one of the founding members of the Population Council. Their initial two-day conference held in Williamsburg was sponsored by the National Academy of Sciences, whose president, Detlev Bronk, was also president of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research at the same time. Dr. Angela Franks recounted the first meeting of the Population Council in her book entitled, “Margaret Sanger’s Eugenic Legacy,” stating, “The Council’s charter accurately reflects the eugenics concerns of those who came to the 1952 conference, at which a long discussion concerning genetic mutation and the supposed decline in the quality of the gene pool took place, with one participant complaining that ‘modern civilization had reduced the operation of natural selection by saving more ‘weak’ lives and enabling them to reproduce.’ Detlev Bronk summarized the discussion by saying that the question of genetic quality ‘is certainly related in a very important way to any control measures for the population and to the more effective utilization of resources by or populations, provided we do not permit a continual deterioration of the race.’”
Frederick Osborn was appointed the first president of the Population Council from 1957 to 1959, following Rockefeller. Osborn, then secretary of the American Eugenics Society, was an enthusiast of the Nazi eugenic sterilization program who stated at a conference on eugenics in 1937, “The German sterilization program is apparently an excellent one. Taken altogether recent developments in Germany constitute perhaps the most important social experiment which has ever been tried.” As a founding member of the American Eugenics Society, Osborn wrote in a 1956 “Eugenics Review” publication, “I still believe in Galton’s dream. Probably most of you do. We must ask ourselves, what have we done wrong? I think we have failed to take into account a trait which is almost universal and is very deep in human nature. People simply are not willing to accept the idea that the genetic base on which their character is formed is inferior and should not be repeated in the next generation…If they have effective means of family planning, they won’t have many [children]. Our studies have shown this to be true all over the world. On such a base it is surely possible to build a system of voluntary unconscious selection.But the reasons advanced must be generally acceptable reasons. Let’s stop telling anyone that they have a generally inferior genetic quality, for they will never agree…It seems to me that if it is to progress as it should, eugenics must follow new policies and state its case anew, and that from this rebirth we may, even in our own lifetime, see it moving at last towards the high goals which Galton set for it.”
As a Carnegie trustee and director of Gamble’s Pioneer Fund, Osborn worked to secure grantsto steer research into the area of eugenics. The Pioneer Fund supported the research of individuals like Nobel Laureate, William Shockley, at Stanford University, who, despite having no genetics or psychology background, devoted the last decades of his life to the pursuit of eugenics research and proposed a sterilization program for those with an IQ of less than 100. The Population Council has received many grants from the Rockefeller Foundation since their initial grant of $100,000 upon their founding in 1952, as well as from others over their 67 years, including: the Ford Foundation, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and International Planned Parenthood Federation. In collaboration with the World Health Organization and the United Nations Population Fund, the organization’s funding is applied to their goal as stated, “For 65 years, the Population Council has been changing the way the world thinks about voluntary family planning.”
After the Eugenic Sterilization Law was passed in 1937, a campaign to sterilize Puerto Rican women, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the Population Council, resulted in the sterilization of approximately one third of women between the 1930’s and 1970’s. The number of surgical sterilizations later increased to 45% by the mid-1990’s, making it the highest sterilization rate in the world and sparking criticisms of such practices as genocidal under the Geneva Convention.
An agreement was made in 1966 with the U.S. Secretary of State and the Prime Minister of India’s daughter, for food aid in exchange for an aggressive population control campaign. Facilities all over the country were converted to accommodate large scale sterilization and IUD insertion procedures, which were donated by the Population Council. The IUD’s, often times, were not sterile, resulting in complications of scores of women experiencing severe pain and bleeding. With the overpopulation of the hospitals who performed such procedures, even more procedures were relegated to triage clinics in rural areas, by personnel with very little training. By 1972 to 1973, the number of sterilizations in India reached a staggering 3 million per year.
The Population Council has historically used underdeveloped and developing countries for clinical trials of new forms of birth control for which they own the patents and/or are the leading developer. The Population Council boasts “Currently, 170 million women worldwide are using a highly effective contraceptive developed by the Council or based on our technology.”
In the case of IUD’s, the Population Council held their first annual International Conference on Intrauterine Contraception in 1962 to discuss a strategy for distribution of IUD’s to large 3rd world populations. Dr. J. Robert Wilson, a chair member of Temple University’s obstetrics and gynecology departments argued, “We have to stop functioning like doctors, thinking about one patient…who might develop this, that or other complications from an intra-uterine device…perhaps the individual is expendable in the general scheme of things.” Even as recently as 2018, there is ongoing litigation over hidden side effects of the Mirena IUD, of which Population Council is the leading developer, such as: perforated uterus, organ damage and the abnormal buildup of fluid in the skull.
Additionally, in the case of Norplant, Brazilian trials began in 1984 and by January of 1986 research was cancelled and denounced. Numerous test subjects complained of strong headaches for months as well as other symptoms and many of them had repeatedly requested the removal of the implants, but were denied. Factions within the Brazilian government raised concerns regarding the lack of autonomy the test subjects had over their birth control and argued that the Population Council’s Norplant could be used as an effective tool to essentially sterilize a female population.
Furthermore, in the case of RU486 – known as the French abortion pill, a French pharmaceutical company by the name of Roussel-Uclaf developed the drug, which causes pharmaceutically induced abortion, in 1980. Their parent company, Hoechst AG, was one of the big three successor corporations to branch off from the German chemical monopoly, IG Farbenindustrie AG after the fall of Hitler’s Third Reich. Known as IG Farben, the conglomerate was at one point, one of the largest chemical and pharmaceutical companies in the world, which was taken over by the Nazi’s following their rise to power in Germany in 1933. By the 1940’s, IG Farben factories were heavily dependent on slave labor from Auschwitz and other concentration camps, while one of their subsidiaries produced the chemical Zyklon B, which was responsible for the genocide of more than one million Jews, gypsies, and others in gas chambers. The creation of a pill by Roussel-Uclaf to abort babies caused public outcry over yet another form of genocide of the unborn, and the FDA was pressured to ban the import of the drug to the United States. Shortly after his inauguration in 1993, Bill Clinton requested that the FDA reexamine their import ban. Roussel-Uclaf forwarded all U.S. patent rights for RU486 to the Population Council in 1994 and clinical trials began shortly thereafter. The use of medical abortions have steadily increased over the years, accounting for 32% of all first trimester abortions by Planned Parenthood in 2008 and in 2015, 24.6% of all abortions were non-surgical, an increase of 114% from 2006 to 2015. The controversial RU486 abortion pill was forced, yet again, into the public spotlight recently when California Governor, Gavin Newsom signed a bill which made the state the first to require public universities to offer abortion medication.
Though the Population Council claims to pursue their noble goals for global change around the world, we should never forget their deeply rooted history of eugenics, which appears never changed.
Vaccination or Sterilization?
Bill Gates has described his work in increasing access to vaccinations throughout the world through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations, as his “best investment” ever. While delivering a 2010 Ted Talk entitled “Innovating to Zero” Gates explained a multifaceted strategy to reduce carbon emissions to 0%, which included the reduction by 10-15% of the projected population of about 9 billion through, “doing a really great job of new vaccines, health care [and] reproductive services.” In Gates’ own words, it appears that the primary goal for vaccinations and birth control services is to reduce the population rather than to improve the quality of life to patients worldwide. Yet, Gates has argued that the use of vaccines to reduce the population does not imply that the vaccines themselves cause death, rather that as the mortality rate of children drops, the number of children born per family reduces as parents become more confident that their children will survive to adulthood.
In 2014, the Kenyan government launched a probe into allegations by Dr. Stephen Karanja, head of Kenyan Catholic Doctors Association, who alleged after testing tetanus vaccines supplied by the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were laced with hCG, an antigen which causes miscarriage. A spokesperson for the Kenya Catholic Doctors Association stated, “This proved right our worst fears; that this WHO campaign is not about eradicating neonatal tetanus but a well-coordinated forceful population control mass sterilization exercise using a proven fertility regulating vaccine. This evidence was presented to the Ministry of Health before the third round of immunization but was ignored.” The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation pledged$10 billion in funding for vaccines supplied by the World Health Organization, to the world’s poorest countries. The WHO and UNICEF organizations have vehemently denied allegations that the tetanus vaccines provided by their organization were laced with the hormone hCG and confirmed the vaccines are “safe and are procured from a pre-qualified manufacturer.” The major cause for concern among the Kenyan Catholic Doctors Association was that the allegedly laced vaccines were provided by the World Health Organization and UNICEF, which have reportedly been involved with developing and distributing anti-fertility vaccines using hCG in the past. A colleague of Dr. Karanja noted, “WHO conducted massive vaccinations campaigns using the tetanus vaccine laced with hCG in Mexico in 1993 and Nicaragua and Philippines in 1994.”
A 1995 publication of “Vaccine Weekly” provides a historical account of the Kenyan doctor’s claim, stating, “In the fall of 1994, the Pro Life Committee of Mexico was suspicious of the protocols for the tetanus toxoid campaign because they excluded all males and children and called for multiple injections of the vaccine in only women of reproductive age. Yet, one injection provides protection for at least 10 years. The Committee had vials of the tetanus vaccine analyzed for hCG. It informed HLI about the tetanus toxoid vaccine. HLI then told its World Council members and HLI affiliates in more than 60 countries. Similar tetanus vaccines laced with hCG have been uncovered in the Philippines and in Nicaragua. In addition to the World Health Organization (WHO), other organizations involved in the development of an anti-fertility vaccine using hCG include the UN Population Fund, the UN Development Program, the World Bank, the Population Council, the Rockefeller Foundation, the US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, and Uppsala, Helsinki, and Ohio State universities. The priest objects that, if indeed the purpose of the mass vaccinations is to prevent pregnancies, women are uninformed, unsuspecting, and unconsenting victims.”
In the case of Gates funded HPV vaccine trials in India carried out by PATH – a non-profit that is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to deliver vaccines, judges demanded answers for the alarming number of deaths of children who were unknowingly used in clinical trials without the consent of their parents. India cut some funding ties with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation over the issue of India’s immunization program and the heavy-handed influence of outsiders with motives other than the best interest of Indian citizens influencing the country’s policies.
A 2018 article published in the Epoch Times, entitled, “Vaccine Boom, Population Bust: Study Queries the Link Between HPV Vaccine and Soaring Infertility” reports on a study that sounds the alarm of the rapidly growing rates of infertility across the globe and in every western country. A recent study which analyzed a database of 8 million American women found “a whopping 25% increase in childlessness associated with one ubiquitous drug that young women have been taking for only a decade [the HPV vaccine]—in tandem with a marked decline in fecundity.” The HPV vaccine, approved by the FDA in 2006, and administered across the U.S., targets girls between the ages of 11-26 despite the fact that the average age of diagnosis for cervical cancer in the U.S. is 47 and there is a mere 0.6% lifetime risk of being diagnosed with the disease.
There appears to be, at the very least, a need for more studies between the correlation of vaccinations and sterilization, yet to no one’s surprise, foundations and institutions like the World Health Organization, UNICEF, The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and others seem disinterested in pursuing the matter.
“Genetics” Became the New Word for “Eugenics”
By the 1950’s, the post-war public perception of eugenics was destroyed once revelations of the atrocities committed in Nazi concentration camps circulated and the eugenics movement sought to rebrand their agenda through the concept of “crypto-eugenics,” which took rise after a proposal by Carlos P. Blacker, a former chairman of the English Eugenics Society, who stated, “that the [Eugenics] Society should pursue ends by less obvious means, that is by a policy of crypto-eugenics, which was apparently proving successful with the US Eugenics Society.” The term “eugenicist” was often replaced by a more publicly acceptable title of “geneticist,” a name which garnered more credibility in the arena of medical research. James D. Watson, co-author of the paper which proposed the double-helix model of DNA, was also one such eugenicist, who carried on the eugenics agenda in the post-World War II era. “Genetics” became the new word for “eugenics.”
In the two months following the Roe v. Wade decision, the American Eugenics Society changed their name to the “Society for the Study of Social Biology,” under the guidance of Frederick Osborn, who explained, “The name was changed because it became evident that changes of a eugenic nature would be made for reasons other than eugenics, and that tying a eugenic label on them would more often hinder than help their adoption. Birth control and abortion are turning out to be great eugenic advances of our time. If they had been advanced for eugenic reasons it would have retarded or stopped their acceptance.”In 1948, The American Society of Human Genetics was founded “to provide leadership in research, education and service in human genetics.” H.J. Muller resided as the first ASHG president in 1949, while Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer became a corresponding member. Both geneticists practiced at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute during World War II, while unethical Nazi sponsored eugenics studies were performed, and Verschuer was accepted as a member of the American Eugenics Society which he remained a member of until his death. As the study of human genetics grew, so did the American Society of Human Genetics, partnering with a number of academic societies and councils including the National Human Genome Research Institute. By 1989, the Office of Human Genome Research was founded to carry out the Human Genome Project, and assigned their first director, James D. Watson – the co-discoverer of the DNA double helix who was president of the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory that was the center of the eugenics movement in the first half of the 20th century. By 2000, the Human Genome Project was the recipient of the American Society of Human Genetics’ Allan Award in honor of hundreds of scientists responsible for deciphering the human genetic code.
Early discoveries in genetics beginning in 1993, led to the innovation of using CRISPR-Cas9 for genome editing by 2013. In 2015, the former chief science and technology advisor to Bill Gates, Boris Nikolic, formed Editas Medicine, with $120 million in backing from Bill Gates and others, as one of the first companies to use CRISPR-Cas9 to cure diseases. The researchers believe CRISPR-Cas9 will offer cures to diseases by altering the genome of patients. Scientific advisor for Editas and leading Harvard geneticist, George Church, believes the research will lead to changing the genes in people in order to make them no longer vulnerable to HIV.
In 2017, Bill Gates was joined by the director of the National Institutes of Health, Francis Collins, for a conference held by the American Society of Human Genetics. The pair represented two of the largest organizations in the world for health research funding. Gates appeared optimistic about the use of genetics to fight worldwide diseases, in particular the genome editing tool CRISPR. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which has funded over $1 billion in family planning programs, and “a bit more than $10 billion,” for vaccination programs worldwide, is now pursuing ambitious new goals to bring gene-editing treatments for HIV and sickle cell disease to sub-Saharan Africans.
Disturbing revelations have come to light of another known billionaire investor in genetics research, Jeffrey Epstein, who had a somewhat mysterious relationship with Bill Gates. The pair met on several occasions to discuss a partnership in funding research for global health projects. Epstein also met with Gates Foundation representatives to present a proposal involving seed money from both the Gates Foundation as well as JPMorgan Chase. Upon Epstein’s death, it was announced that the accused sex trafficker and pedophile named Editas founder and former Bill Gates advisor, Boris Nikolic, as successor executor of his will, much to the surprise of Nikolic, who’s spokesperson claims that the two had no business ties. Both Epstein and Nikolic were clients of JPMorgan Chase, of which another Epstein associate, Jes Staley, is the former CEO.
Epstein, of course, had a close connection with the Clintons, who’s Clinton Foundation, Clinton Global Initiative, and Clinton Health Access Initiative also are deeply involved in the healthcare industries in less developed countries and have partnered with The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which is one of the largest donors to the Clinton Health Access Initiative, with the goal of reducing prices and increasing access to HIV treatments in the developing world. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation worked in coordination with CHAI, UNAIDS, and others to accelerate the availability in South Africa and Kenya, of a single pill HIV treatment regimen recommended by the World Health Organization. The billionaire pedophile claimed, in a 2007 letterfrom his attorney amidst plea negotiations, that “Mr. Epstein was part of the original group that conceived the Clinton Global Initiative, which is described as a project ‘bringing together a community of global leaders to devise and implement innovative solutions to some of the world’s most pressing challenges,” and quoted Bill Clinton describing Epstein as, “a committed philanthropist with a keen sense of global markets and an in depth knowledge of twenty-first century science,” during their month-long trip to Africa raising awareness for the AIDS epidemic.
Epstein’s close friend and only known client, Les Wexner, is also heavily invested in the pursuit of gene editing therapy. His wife, Abigail, has advocated for further research into gene therapy for the Nationwide Children’s Hospital, to which the couple has donated $80 million from their Wexner Family Foundation. Nationwide Children’s Hospital, which promptly renamed their research institute the “Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital,” has partnered with others such as Mustang Bio, Inc. in medical breakthroughs involving CRISPR-Cas9. Les Wexner became close with Epstein after their first meeting in the mid-1980s, and Wexner eventually signed over power of attorney to Jeffrey Epstein, who was a trustee of the Wexner Foundation. Wexner has claimed that ties with Epstein were severed in 2007 and that funds from Wexner’s Foundation were misappropriated or stolen.
Epstein invested millions in genetics research, which appeared to stem from an obsession with eugenics, transhumanism, and desire to “strengthen the gene pool.” Professor emeritus of law at Harvard, Alan Derschowitz, who served as Epstein’s lawyer, said “that Epstein would at times steer conversations about how to improve the human race genetically, an idea that appalled Dershowitz because of the overlap with Nazi theories about eugenics.” Furthermore, Epstein was allegedly fascinated with a concept conceived by Robert K. Graham, a devout eugenicist, who established a sperm bank for Nobel laureates, known as the Repository for Germinal Choice in 1980. Inspired by Graham’s concept, Epstein reportedly planned to use his Zorro Ranch home as a base for impregnating as many women as he could – a contribution he perceived to be his own demented version of “strengthening the gene pool.”
Rapidly developing innovations in CRISPR gene editing technology have forced the medical, scientific, academic, legal, and political communities to debate ethical guidelines and standards for the emerging medical frontier. The societal impacts of editing DNA extend beyond the personal impacts of a patient or their future generations and raise questions of the technology’s use for only the privileged people to create “designer babies,” which would further widen the gaps between the “haves” and the “have nots,” in a profound way. The ability to edit the DNA of human embryos through CRISPR technology forces the scientific community to analyze where a line must be drawn and what it truly means to be human.
The ethics debate of using CRISPR to edit human DNA reached a tipping point when a Chinese researcher, by the name of He Jiankui, announced in November of 2018, that he had edited the genes of 2 human embryos which were brought to full term. The outraged scientific community denounced this unethical practice and He was fired by his university, Southern University of Science and Technology in Shenzhen. Chinese authorities claim to have ceased all of He’s research activities, though an associate of He’s, Dr. William Hurlbut, stated that several countries and families, including a Dubai clinic, have contacted He with interest in pursuing the research further.
Prior to He’s announcement of creating two genetically altered babies using CRISPR technology, He gave a presentation at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in 2017 describing his experiments on mice, monkeys, and over 300 human embryos – which was fitting, as the laboratory itself is steeped in a long and controversial history of eugenics.
The desire by those with power and influence to manipulate the worldwide human gene pool has plagued modern medicine since the turn of the 20th century. From the origin of eugenics, to innovations in genetics, an assemblage of a select few with money, power, and influence, have sought to control the world’s population under the guise of “healthcare” for everyone else.
Special thanks to pathologist and friend, Dr. B, for contributions to this report.
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